artificial intelligence

Deepfakes / Image Rights

Deepfakes and the Law: an excerpt from my Society of Computers & Law Webinar

On Tuesday, 8 September 2020, I was delighted to give a webinar for the Society of Computers & Law entitled Me and my Deepfake: a closer look at image rights and our digital selves. SCL is a fantastic educational charity so, if you like what you see here, I would encourage you to join SCL or perhaps donate to their organisation. My webinar was structured into three main sections: the technology behind deepfakes, the real world risks they can pose, and different laws which may be available to combat an unwanted deepfake. In this post, I’m going to share my…


The Tech Behind Deepfakes

I am by no means a computer programmer, let alone an expert in artificial intelligence. But I have done a lot of research on AI and machine learning in the context of deepfakes. In this post, I summarise some of the key concepts underpinning how deepfakes are made. Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence is often associated with a system such as Skynet, the computer with superintelligence that stars, albeit off screen, as the antagonist in the Terminator films. Such computers are often portrayed as sentient and self-aware, and may one day replicate or potentially even surpass human intelligence to form cultures…

Artificial Intelligence / Film and TV

Using AI in Film Studio Decision-Making

An “auteur” is a film director who influences their films so much that they rank as an author, and the auteur theory of filmmaking is one that frames the director as the primary creative force in a motion picture. Are we moving into an era in which artificial intelligence algorithm – rather than the auteur – is behind the magic of the movies? In this article for JURIST, I consider several legal and social implications of using AI in the film industry. The global movie industry generated over $43 (£33) billion in revenue in 2018, of which the United States’ contribution…

Deepfakes / Image Rights

DeepFakes and False Lights: what does the law say?

What do Scarlett Johansson, cyber intelligence experts and some law makers have in common? Their shared concern about AI-generated videos. This post is from February 2019. For more recent commentary, view the deepfakes tag. Known as “Deepfakes,” these videos can have damaging impact on reputations, emotional health, and even national security. But what is the legal status of this disruptive – and oftentimes disturbing – technology? Deepfake – which combines “deep learning” and “fake” – is commonly defined as an artificial intelligence-based human image synthesis technique. Put simply, it’s a way to superimpose one face over another. In December 2017, an anonymous…